Público: de espectador a financiador. La educación cultural y artística

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No existe mejor “yacimiento” de públicos para la Cultura que la formación cultural y artística, en todas las etapas de la vida y, en especial, en la temprana. Sin embargo, éste ha sido un ámbito de progresivo abandono en unas políticas que miran más a la Oferta que a la  Demanda y, en Estados Unidos, es objeto de debate y de estudio, buscando conclusiones que guíen nuevas políticas.

“State Arts Policy has emphasized Supply and Access, not Demand.”[1] “Investment in demand, by which we mean developing the capacity of individuals to engage in aesthetic expe­riences, has been neglected in both arts and education policy over several decades (…). “It is our view that without this investment, audiences for the arts will continue to diminish despite heavy investments in supply and access.”[2]

“Arts participation requires capacities for understanding and appreciating the modes of expression, symbol systems, aesthetics, and the cultural context in which the arts are embedded. People who have not cultivated and developed these capacities are less likely to find arts experiences rewarding, and they are less likely to invest time and resources in the arts.”[3]

“In America, we do not reserve arts education for privileged students or the elite. Children from disadvantaged backgrounds, students who are English language learners, and students with disabilities often do not get the enrichment experiences of affluent students anywhere except at school. President Obama recalls that when he was a child ‘you always had an art teacher and a music teacher. Even in the poorest school districts everyone had access to music and other arts’. Today, sadly, that is no longer the case.”[4]

“For more than 30 years, arts education has struggled to maintain space and time in publicly funded education in the United States for children in kindergarten through grade 12. In the nation’s urban centers, reductions in state and local budgets in the 1970s and 1980s led to diminished arts programming in favor of maintaining other subjects. More recently, government-legislated accountability based on mathematics and reading test scores has shifted attention to these subjects, to the detriment of other elements of the curriculum.”[5]

“All the benefits of the arts begin with individual captivation and intense absorption.” So wrote the authors of Gifts of the Muse, a landmark report by RAND that describes the ben­efits people and communities can gain from participation in the arts. The report reached another conclusion: individuals who experience and learn about the arts at a young age are likelier to reap those benefits over their lifetimes. Unfortunately, the opposite is also true: there are troubling signs that demand for the arts is becoming less and less widely shared. And a likely explanation is that arts learning opportunities have been dwindling over the last 30 years, both in school and outside.”[6]

“Men and women are about equally likely to attend a performance of music, opera, drama, dance, or a museum exhibit, once one takes into account social and personal background characteristics and how much time a person has available to attend an arts performance.

  • Those who had more arts education were more likely to attend arts performances–a relationship which was about four times stronger than that of any other factor considered.
  • More than half the initial differences in attendance associated with SES-one’s ability to pay–were removed by considering differences in arts education.”[7]

“The key to lifting demand for the arts may well lie in reversing the 30-year-long decline in arts learning, both in and out of schools. A number of cities have been tackling that challenge by using “coordinated approaches” that seek to have schools and other providers join forces in expanding access to arts learning. Two reports produced by the RAND Corporation and commissioned by The Wallace Foundation – Cultivating Demand for the Arts: Arts Learning, Arts Engagement, and State Arts Policy, and Revitalizing Arts Education Through Community-Wide Coordination – explore the challenges and identify the policy implications.”[8]

Recientemente, en nuestro país, Francisco Nieva afirmaba: “Los recortes en educación provocan que la gente retroceda ante el teatro serio y refinado, y fomentan un público primitivo y embastecido, que sólo responde al chiste fácil”,  http://www.elcultural.es/revista/escenarios/Francisco-Nieva-La-vanguardia-hoy-es-cargante-y-topica/35979

Y, en el contexto europeo, la opinión del pianista Pierre-Laurent Aimard, “A la sociedad le cuesta trabajo incorporar lo nuevo, pasa con el pensamiento y con la ciencia. Hacen falta un par de generaciones para asimilar esos descubrimientos. (….) Para esa asimilación es fundamental la educación musical, no solo de los niños, sino de toda la sociedad. Lo que pasa en Occidente es un desastre en cuanto a la educación en las artes. Y estamos viendo los buenos resultados de otros países que han invertido en educación musical. Es el caso de Finlandia, un pequeño país que está dando una gran generación de músicos; o Japón, el lugar que ahora tiene un abanico de conciertos de extraordinaria calidad y un público fenomenal que ama la música, fruto de una buena educación cultural, como en su día tuvo Hungría, que dio una importante generación de grandes músicos”.

En Francia los recientes atentados terroristas han desencadenado una nueva visión,

http://www.lemonde.fr/culture/article/2015/02/11/l-education-artistique-apres-charlie_4574394_3246.html

http://www.lemonde.fr/culture/article/2015/02/11/un-nouveau-plan-pour-la-democratisation-culturelle_4574675_3246.html

Mientras la inauguración de la Philharmonie de Paris recalcaba la importancia de la pedagogía: “Homme-clé de la musique classique en France, Laurent Bayle, président de la Philharmonie de Paris, veut tester un nouveau modèle d’éveil et d’éducation à la musique.

Quelle est la part de la pédagogie dans le projet de la Philharmonie ?

Une part essentielle. Nous allons nous appuyer sur l’expérience acquise à la Cité de la musique, et aussi innover. Au-delà des visites scolaires, des ateliers d’éveil et des rencontres avec les artistes, nous allons tester des cafés-musique, un studio radio. La Philharmonie ne se veut pas seulement une salle de concert, mais un lieu de réappropriation de la musique par le public. Celui-ci pourra marcher partout dans le bâtiment, même sur le toit ! Pour créer cette dynamique, nous avons de belles forces vives : la Philharmonie fédère cinq formations résidentes, qui vont ouvrir leurs répétitions au public, développer des concerts pour enfants et des concerts participatifs. Mais il faut aller plus loin. Il faut décloisonner les genres : imaginer un week-end Berlin sur la musique classique, et un week-end flamenco ; un week-end Inde où sera mise en avant la partie traditionnelle du râga, mais aussi la manière dont les jeunes récupèrent cette musique aujourd’hui.

http://www.lemonde.fr/culture/article/2015/01/08/laurent-bayle-la-philharmonie-se-veut-un-lieu-de-reappropriation-de-la-musique-par-le-public_4551903_3246.html#drjLYISZzQIo2D0h.99

La Fondation Total ya había hecho una gran apuesta por la educación cultural y artística, firmando un convenio con el ministerio:

« Cet engagement se traduit pour Total par :

– un soutien de deux millions d’euros apporté à des structures ayant répondu à un appel à projets « éducation artistique et culturelle » diffusé par les Directions Régionales des Affaires Culturelles (Drac) et sélectionnées par un jury composé de représentants des ministères en charge de la Culture et de la Jeunesse ainsi que de membres de la Fondation Total ;

– un soutien d’un million d’euros à des institutions culturelles développant des projets d’EAC d’envergure interrégionale ou nationale ;

– un soutien d’un million d’euros à des projets initiés et financés dans le cadre d’une convention de partenariat avec le Fonds d’Expérimentation pour la Jeunesse (FEJ) pour des projets innovants dans le domaine de l’EAC. »

file:///C:/Users/Usuario/Downloads/Dossier+de+Presse+-+signature+Convention+Education+Artistique+et+Culturelle+-+28+janvier+2014.pdf

Y la Mission du Mécénat le ha dedicado uno de sus « Jeudis du Mécénat », http://www.culture.fr/esl/layout/set/print/Actualites/Portrait-Dossier/Mecenat-et-acces-aux-arts-et-a-la-culture-pour-tous-les-jeunes/%28theme%29/1

 



[1] Cultivating Demand for the Arts: Arts Learning, Arts Engagement, and State Arts Policy, Laura Zakaras Julia F. Lowell, RAND Corporation, Wallace Foundations, 2008.

[2] INCREASING ARTS DEMAND THROUGH BETTER ARTS LEARNING, KNOWLEDGE IN BRIEF, Wallace Foundation, 2008.

[3] Arts education in America: What the declines mean for arts participation, Nick Rabkin and E. C. Hedberg, National Endowment for the Arts, February 2011.

[4] U.S. Department of Education Secretary Arne Duncan, April 9, 2010.

[5] Revitalizing Arts Education Through Community-Wide Coordination, Susan J. Bodilly, Catherine H. Augustine, Laura Zakaras, RAND Corporation, Wallace Foundations, 2008.

[6] INCREASING ARTS DEMAND THROUGH BETTER ARTS LEARNING, KNOWLEDGE IN BRIEF, Wallace Foundation, 2008.

[7]Effects of Arts Education on Participation in the Arts, Louis Bergonzi and Julia Smith, Research Division Report #36, National Endowment for the Arts, Seven Locks Press Santa Ana, California, First printed 1996.

[8] INCREASING ARTS DEMAND THROUGH BETTER ARTS LEARNING, KNOWLEDGE IN BRIEF, Wallace Foundation, 2008.